Corbicula fluminea - Asian or Asiatic Clam


Information Last Reviewed Spring 2007


Corbicula fluminea is believed to have been introduced to North America in 1924. Since this introduction it has wreaked havoc on industrial intake and outtake systems across the United States.



General Biology


Life Cycle

Habitat Characteristics





Web Sites







Phylum Mollusca

Subphylum:  Crustacea

Class Bivalvia

Order Veneroida

Family Corbiculidae





General Biology











Juvenile Morphology


Adult Morphology




Distinguishing Characteristics





Life Cycle














Habitat Characteristics


Preferred Environment






Water Quality







Native Range


North American Distribution


Probable Means of Introduction
















Control Measures







  1. Aldridge, D.W. & R.F. McMahon. 1978. Growth, fecundity, and bioenergetics in a natural population of the freshwater clam, Corbicula fluminea Philippi, from north central Texas. Journal of Molluscan Studies 44: 49–70.


  1. Bass, D.G., Jr., and V.G. Hitt. 1974. Utilization of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula manilensis, by game fishes in Florida. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Northeast Region, Lake City. 7pp.


  1. Belanger, S.E., J.L. Farris, D.S. Cherry, and J. Cairns, Jr. 1985. Sediment preference of the freshwater Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea. The Nautilus 99(2-3):66-73.


  1. Britton, J.C., and B. Morton. 1986. Polymorphism in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculoidea) from North America. Malacological Review 19:1-43.


  1. Burch, B.L. 1978. Asian clam, Corbicula threatens Hawaii. Nautilus 92(1):54-55.


  1. Carlton, J. T. 1992. Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: An end-of-20th-century perspective. Journal of Shellfish Research 11:489-505.


  1. Clench, W.J. 1970. Corbicula manilensis (Philippi) in lower Florida. Nautilus 84(1):36-37.


  1. Counts, C. L., III. 1986. The zoogeography and history of the invasion of the United States by Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). American Malacological Bulletin, Special Edition No. 2:7-39.


  1. Dreier, H. & J.A. Tranquilli. 1981. Reproduction, growth, distribution, and abundance of Corbicula in an Illinois cooling lake. Illinois Natural History Survey Bull. 32: 378–393.


  1. Dundee, D.S. 1974. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (north of Mexico). Sterkiana No. 55:1-37.


  1. Eng, L.L. 1979. Population dynamics of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea (Müller) in concrete-lined Delta-Mendota Canal of central California. In J. C. Britton (ed.), Proc. First Internat. Corbicula Simp. Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas: 249–287.


  1. Gottfried, P.K., and J.A. Osborne. 1982. Distribution, abundance and size of Corbicula manilensis (Philippi) in a spring-fed central Florida stream. Florida Scientist 45(3):178-188.


  1. Hall, J.J. 1984. Production of immature Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia:Corbiculidae), in Lake Norman, North Carolina. Nautilus 98(4):153-159.


  1. Hornbach, D.J. 1992. Life history traits of a riverine population of the Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea. American Midland Naturalist 127: 248-257.


  1. Howells, R.G. 1992. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.


  1. Hubricht, L. 1963. Corbicula fluminea in the Mobile River. Nautilus 77(1):31.


  1. Ingram, W.M. 1948. The larger fresh-water clams of California, Oregon, and Washington. Journal of Entomology and Zoology 40(4):72-92.


  1. Janech, M.G., and R.D. Hunter. 1995. Corbicula fluminea in a Michigan river: Implications for low temperature tolerance. Malacological Review 28:119-124.


  1. Jenkinson, J.J. 1979. The occurrence and spread of Corbicula manilensis in east-central Alabama. Nautilus 94(4):149-153.


  1. Kaller, M.D. and W.E. Kelso. 2007. Association of macroinvertebrate assemblages with dissolved oxygen concentration and wood surface area in selected subtropical streams of the southeastern USA. Aquatic Ecology 41:1 95


  1. Karatayev, A.Y., R.G. Howells, L.E. Burlakova, B.D. Sewell. History of spread and current distribution of Corbicula fluminea (Muller) in Texas. Journal of Shellfish Research 24: 553-559.


  1. King, C.A., C.J. Langdon, and C.L. Counts, III. 1986. Spawning and early development of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbicularidae) in laboratory culture. American Malacological Bulletin 4(1):81-88.


  1. Kraemer, L.R., and M.L. Galloway. 1986. Larval development of Corbicula fluminea (Muller) (Bivalvia: Corbiculacea): An appraisal of its heterochrony. American Malacological Bulletin 4(1):61-79.


  1. Lachner, E. A., C. R. Robins, and W. R. Courtenay, Jr. 1970. Exotic fishes and other aquatic organisms introduced into North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 59:1-29.


  1. Lopez, C.B., Cloern , J.E., Schraga, T.S., Little, A.J., Lucas, L.V., Thompson, J.K., and Burau, J.R., 2006, Ecological values of shallow-water habitats: Implications for the restoration of disturbed ecosystems: Ecosystems. 9: 422-440.


  1. Mattice, J.S. 1977. Interactions of Corbicula sp. with power plants. Pages 119-138 in J.C. Britton (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Corbicula Symposium. Texas Christian University Research Foundation. Fort Worth, Texas. 313 pp.


  1. McMahon, R.F. 1983. Ecology of an invasive bivalve, Corbicula. Pages 505-561 in W.D. Russell-Hunter (ed.) The Mollusca. Vol 6. Ecology. Academic Press. San Diego.


  1. McMahon, R.F. & C.J. Willams, 1986. A reassessment of growth rate, life span, life cycles and population dynamics in a natural population and field caged individuals of Corbicula fluminea (Müller) (Bivalvia: Corbiculacea). Am. Malacol. Bull. Special Edition No. 2: 151–166.


  1. Miller, A.C., and B.S. Payne. 1994. Co-occurrence of native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and the non-indigenous Corbicula fluminea at two stable shoals in the Ohio River, USA. Malacological Review 27:87-97.


  1. Morton, B., 1977. The population dynamics of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculacea) in Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. J. Zool. Lond. 181: 21–42.


  1. Morton, B., and K.Y. Tong. 1985. The salinity tolerance of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia:Corbiculoidea) from Hong Kong. Malacological Review 18:91-95.


  1. Mouton, J., 2001, Life cycle and population dynamics of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in the Rhone River at Creys-Malville (France). Archiv f €ur Hy- drobiologie 151(4): 571–589.


  1. Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.


  1. Payne, B.S., A.C. Miller, P.D. Hartfield & R.F. McMahon, 1989. Variation in size demography of lotic populations of Corbicula fluminea (Müller). Nautilus 103: 78–82.


  1. Sikel, J.B., 1979. Population dynamics of Corbicula in the Altamaha River, Georgia. In J. C. Britton (ed.), Proc. First Internat. Corbicula Symp. Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas: 13–15.


  1. Stites, D.L., A.C. Benke, and D.M. Gillespie. 1995. Population dynamics, growth, and production of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, in a blackwater river. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:425-437.


  1. Williams, C.J. & R.F. McMahon, 1986. Power station entrainment of Corbicula fluminea (Müller) in relation to population dynamics, reproductive cycle and biotic and abiotic variables. Am. Malacol. Bull. Special Edition 2: 99–111.


Additional Literature


Blalock, H.N., and J.J. Herod. 1999. A comparative study of stream habitat and substrate utilized by Corbicula fluminea in the New River, Florida. Florida Scientist 62:145-151.


Fox, R.O. 1969. The Corbicula Story: A Progress Report. Western Society Malacologists 11pp.


Hillis, D.M., and J.C. Patton. 1982. Morphological and electrophoretic evidence for two species of Corbicula (Bivalvia: Corbicularidae) in North America. American Midland Naturalist 108:74-80.


Morton, B. 1987. Polymorphism in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia:Corbiculoidea) from Hong Kong. Malacological Review 20:105-127.


Sinclair, R.M. 1971b. Annotated bibliography on the exotic bivalve Corbicula in North America, 1900-1971. Sterkiana No. 43:11-18.


Sinclair, R.M. 1971a. Corbicula variation and Dreissena parallels. The Biologist 53(3):153-159.






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