Limnoperna fotunei - Golden Mussel

 

Information Last Reviewed Spring 2007

 

The golden mussel, a macrofouling bivalve, was introduced into Argentina from Asia in 1991 and within a decade spread to four other South American countries. The invasion of the zebra mussel (a morphologically similar bivalve) into North American waters demonstrated the vulnerability of industrial water conduits to macrofouling species. Although these two species share some of the physical characteristics, the golden mussel exhibits a wider tolerance of ecological parameters than the zebra mussel. Therefore, if introduced into North American waters, the golden mussel is expected to invade a broader range of habitats.

 

Taxonomy

General Biology

Identification

Life Cycle

Habitat Characteristics

Distribution

Diet

Impacts

Management

Literature

Web Sites

 

 

 

 

Taxonomy

 

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia (Pelecypoda)

Order: Mytiloida

Family: Mytilidae

 

 

 

General Biology

 

Juvenile Morphology

 

Adult Morphology

 

Behavior

 

 

 

Identification

 

image\gmusselfig1.jpg

 

Distinguishing Characteristics

 

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Life Cycle

 

Geographical variations exist for reproduction, growth, and longevity.  The following information pertains mainly to populations existing in South America.

 

image\gmusselfig3.jpg

 

Veligers

 

Juveniles

 

Maturity

 

image\gmusselfig4.jpg

 

Spawning

 

 

 

Habitat Characteristics

 

Preferred Environment

 

Temperature

 

Oxygen

 

Salinity

 

Water Quality

 

image\lfortuneitab1.jpg

 

 

 

Distribution

 

Native Range

 

Distribution in the Americas

 

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Probable Means of Introduction

 

 

 

Diet

 

Adults

 

 

 

Impacts

 

Negative

 

Positive

 

 

 

Management

 

Control Measures

 

 

 

Literature

 

Darrigran, G. and Ezcurra de Drago, I. 2000. Invasion of the exotic freshwater mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in South America. Nautilus 114(2):69-73.

 

Darrigran, G. and Pastorino, G. 1995. The recent introduction of a freshwater Asiatic bivalve, Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae) into South America. The Veliger 38(2):171-175.

 

Deaton, L. E., Derby, J. G. S., Subhedar, N., and Greenberg, M. J. 1989. Osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in two species of bivalve mollusc: Limnoperna fortunei and Mytilopsis leucophaeta. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 133:67-79.

 

Iwasaki, K. and Uryu, Y. 1998. Life cycle of a freshwater mytilid mussel, Limnoperna fortunei in Uji River, Kyoto. Venus the Japanese Journal of Malacology 57(2):105-113.

 

Magara, Y., Matsui, Y., Goto, Y., and Yuasa, A. 2001. Invasion of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan. Aqua - Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology 50(3):113-124.

 

Morton, B. 1973. Some aspects of the biology and functional morphology of the organs of feeding and digestion of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker) (Bivalvia: Mytilacea). Malacologia 12(2):265-281.

 

Morton, B. 1974. Some aspects of the biology, population dynamics and functional morphology of Musculista senhousia Benson (Bivalvia, Mytilidae). Pacific Science 28:19-33.

 

Morton, B. S., Au, C. S., and Lam, W. W. 1976. The efficacy of chlorine in the control of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) colonizing parts of Hong Kong’s raw water supply system. Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists 30:147-156.

 

Penchaszadeh, P. E., Darrigran, G., Angulo, C., Averbuj, A, Brögger, M., Dogliotti, A., and Pírez, N. 2000. Predation of the invasive freshwater mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae) by the fish Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes, 1846 (Anostomidae) in the Rio de la Plata, Argentina. Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):229-231.

 

Ricciardi, A. 1998. Global range expansion of the Asian mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae): Another fouling threat to freshwater systems. Biofouling 13(2):97-106.

 

Uryu, Y., Iwasaki, K., Hinoue, M. 1996. Laboratory experiments on behaviour and movement of a freshwater mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker). Journal of Molluscan Studies 62(3):327-341.

 

 

 

Web Sites

 

http://www.way.com/ar/~invasion/English/

Control and Prevention of Invasive Bivalves - Limnoperna fortunei, the "golden mussel"

 

http://www.sgnis.org/publicat/96iccia.htm

Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species

 

This report was prepared by Danielle M. Crosier and Daniel P. Molloy (New York State Museum) with assistance from Anthony Ricciardi (McGill University) and Walter A. Boeger (Universidade Federal do Paraná - Brazil).