Melanoides tuberculata - Red-rimmed Melania


Information Last Reviewed Spring 2007


This mollusk was first introduced to the United States for use in aquaria by hobbyists. The reason for its popularity is its ability to thrive in freshwater as well as estuarine waters. The most significant impact is M. tuberculata’s role as a transmission vector for several trematodes, which are harmful to humans, and have had an impact on endangered fishes in Texas. This mollusk is also known to competitively exclude native snails.




General Biology

Life Cycle

Habitat Characteristics





Web Sites








Melanoides tuberculata shells.

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Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Neotaenioglossa

Family: Thiaridae








Juvenile Morphology


Adult Morphology


Distinguishing Characteristics





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Habitat Characteristics


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Native Range


North American Distribution



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Control Measures





Literature Cited


  1. Abbott, T. 1952. A study of an intermediate snail host (Thiara granifera) of the Oriental Lung Fluke (Paragonimus). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 102:71-118.


  1. Abbott, R.T. 1974. Spread of Melanoides tuberculata. The Nautilus 87:29.


  1. Ben-Ami, F. and A.N. Hodgson. 2005. Ovoviviparity and the structure of the brood pouch in Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae). Journal of Morphology 263:322-329.


  1. Berg, B., L. McCoy, M. Forhand, J. Miller, and L.A. Elgin. 2003. Lithia Springs: A biological assessment. Karst Studies in West Central Florida 2003:79-92.


  1. Blay, J. Jr. and F. Dongdem. 1996. Preliminary observations on the benthic macrofauna of a polluted coastal lagoon in Ghana (West Africa). Tropical Ecology 37:127-133.


  1. Clench, W.J. 1969. Melanoides tuberculata (Muller) in Florida. Nautilus 83:72.


  1. Contreras-Arquieta, A. 1998. New records of the snail Melanoides tuberculata (Muller, 1774) (Gastropod: Thiaridae) in the Cuatro Cienegas basin, and its distribution in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 43:283-286.


  1. De Marco, P. Jr., 1999. Invasion by the introduced aquatic snail Melanoides tuberculata (Muller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae) of the Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Studies of Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 34:186-189.


  1. Dillon, R.T. Jr., 2000. The ecology of freshwater molluscs. Cambridge University Press. New York. 509p.


  1. Duggan, I.C. 2002. First record of a wild population of the tropical snail Melanoides tuberculata in New Zealand natural waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36:825-829.


  1. Madsen, H. 1992. Food selection by freshwater snails in the Gezira irrigation canals, Sudan. Hydrobiologia 228:203-217.


  1. Murray, H.D. 1964. Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculatus in Texas. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union.1964:15-16.


  1. Murray, H.D. 1971. The introduction and spread of thiarids in the United States. The Biologist 53:133-135.


  1. Murray, H.D. 1975. Melanoides Tuberculata (Muller), Las Morras Creek, Bracketville, Texas. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union, Inc., 1975:43.


  1. Pointier, J.P. 2001. Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies. Rio de Janeiro. 96:67-74.


  1. Pointier, J.P., A. Theron, and G. Borel. 1993. Ecology of the introduced snail Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in relation to Biomphalaria glabrata in the marshy forest zone of Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 59:421-428.


  1. Pointier, J.P., R.N. Incani, C. Balzan, P. Chrosciechowski, and S. Prypchan. 1994. Invasion of the rivers of the littoral central region of Venezuela by Thiara granifera and Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae) and the absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. The Nautilus 107:124-128.


  1. Pointier, J.P., S. Samadi, P. Jarne and B. Delay. (1998). Introduction and spread of Thiara granifera (Lamarck, 1822) in Martinique, French West Indies. Biodiversity and Conservation. 7:1277-1290.


  1. Ramamoorthi, K. 1955. Studies in the embryological and development of some melaniid snails. Journal of Zoological Society India. 7:25-34.


  1. Thompson, F.G. 1984. The freshwater snails of Florida: A manual for identification. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 94p.


  1. Victor, R. and A.A.I Al-Farsi. 2001. Water quality and invertebrate fauna of farm wells in an area affected by salinization in Oman. Journal of Arid Environments 48:419-428.


Additional Literature


Berry, A.J., and A.B. Haji Kadri. 1974. Reproduction in the Malayan freshwater cerithiacean gastropod Melanoides Tuberculata. Journal of Zoology 172:369-381.


Dudgeon, D. 1982. Aspects of the desiccation tolerance of four species of benthic mollusca from Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. The Veliger 24:267-271.


Dundee, D.S. 1974. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (north of Mexico). Sterkiana 55:1-37.


Dundee, D.S. and A. Paine. 1977. Ecology of the snail Melanoides Tuberculata (Müller), intermediate host of the human liver fluke (Opisthorchis Sinensis) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Nautilus 91:17-20.


Howells, R.G. 1992. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.


Jacobson, M.K. 1975. The freshwater prosobranch, Tarebia Granifera, in Oriente, Cuba. The Nautilus 89:106.


Kotrla, M.B. 1975. New geographical location for Philophthalmus Sp. in thiarid snails and waterfowl in Texas. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union, Inc., 1975:41-42.


Lee, V. 1973. Some common snails of vegetable fields in Hong Kong. Agriculture Hong Kong 1:123-129.


Livshits, G. and L. Fishelson. 1983. Biology and reproduction of the freshwater snail Melanoides Tuberculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 32:21-35.


Livshits, G., Fishelson, L., and G.S. Wise. 1984. Genetic similarity and diversity of parthenogenic and bisexual populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides Tuberculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 23:41-54.


Morrison, J.P.E. 1954. The relationships of Old and New World melanians. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 103:357-393.


Murray, H.D. and D. Haines. 1969. Philophthalmus Sp. (Trematoda) in Tarebia Granifera and Melanoides Tuberculatus in south Texas. Annual Reports of the American Malacological Union, 1969:44-45.


Neck, R.W. 1985. Melanoides Tuberculata in extreme southern Texas. Texas Conchologist 21:150-152.


Raeihle, D. 1980. A note on Melanoides Tuberculata (Muller, 1774) (and remarks on other species of the same station). New York Shell Club Notes 259:6-7.


Roessler, M.A., G. L. Beardsley, and D. C. Tabb. 1977. New records of the introduced snail, Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) in south Florida. Florida Scientist 40:87-94.


Russo, T. N. 1974. Discovery of the gastropod snail Melanoides (Thiara) Tuberculata (Muller) in Florida. Florida Scientist 36:212-213.


Subda Rao, N.V. and S.C. Mitra. 1982. Bioecology of two melanoid snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in ponds near Calcutta. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 34:21-32.





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