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Last Updated: Spring 2011
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Synonyms: NONE

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Home Range/U.S. Introduction:
Yellow toadflax is native to Eurasia and is now widespread throughout the United States. Since the plant is an attractive ornamental, the original introduction was probably for that purpose.

U.S. Range Map:

Species Description:
Yellow toadflax is a perennial herb with rhizomes. The leaves are simple, alternate, net-veined and sessile. The leaves are linear, glabrous, entire, and with pinnate major veins. The flowers are perfect and produced in a dense, terminal raceme. The petals are bright to cream yellow with a dull orange center. A spur ca 1 cm long is located at the base of the petals. The fruit is a capsule with two locules and many seeds. The seeds are winged, disk-shaped, and dark brown to black.

Habitat/Growth Characteristics:
Yellow toadflax is an aggressive perennial that can reproduce by seeds or rhizomes. It is common in roadsides, fields, waste areas, railroad yards, pastures, and edges of forests.

The aggressive nature of this plant allows it to outcompete other plants, including natives. Its rhizomatous habit makes the eradication of this species difficult. The plants are reported to be mildly toxic to livestock.