Management and Control

This Management and Control Section was edited for scientific content by:
Danielle M. Crosier and Daniel P. Molloy
Division of Research & Collections
New York State Museum
Field Research Laboratory
Cambridge, New York 12816


This section is divided into the following three major topics:




Numerous methods have been identified for the management and control of the zebra mussel. These methods can be essentially classified into three categories: chemical, biological, or physical. While each of these management types have advantages and disadvantages, given the nature of each strategy, one type may be more appropriate for a particular habitat or situation than the others. Some of these strategies are primarily reactive, while others are proactive/preventative. While most methods may be used alone, they may also be used with others for a more effective impact.


When developing a management and control program, it is important to clearly identify the objective of the program prior to implementation. Plans should be based on existing physical data, as well as information on the size, structure, and location of the mussel population. Keep in mind that control programs generally strive to achieve one or more of the following outcomes:

100% veliger mortality  100% adult mortality

0% veliger settlement  0% adult settlement/translocation

One must consider facility conditions such as water chemistry, water flow rates, temperature, and the types and numbers of vulnerable structures within the raw water system in the design of a successful management and control program. The relative importance of these parameters will depend largely on the descriptive data available from monitoring efforts (see the Monitoring Contents). The management and control program will likely be directly related to the quality of the data and information that were used in its design.


Careful attention must be given before, during, and after implementation of control strategies to ensure that there are minimal adverse environmental impacts. Particular attention must be given to any effluent water or system discharge that has been treated with chemical or thermal methods to avoid release of contaminated water. Many of the control strategies discussed in this section generate potentially high levels of chemical or thermal contaminants. These contaminants need to be carefully disposed of or dispersed prior to their release into downstream waters and the surrounding environment. Some of the chemicals used in biofouling control can produce serious by-products (e.g., tetramethahalides produced by the oxidation of chlorine), which could cause substantial problems if released in quantity directly into the source water (see Environmental Impacts of Chemical Control).


Management and Control Options

Control Methods by Facility

Environmental Impacts of Chemical Control