The commercial MacroTech ZM-Series devices employ copper and aluminum anodes to supply copper ions to water at a low but toxic level. The gelatinous nature of the aluminum hydroxide formed enhances flocculation and deposition of the copper ion on surfaces, which then makes them unacceptable for settling (Blume, Fraleigh, and Van Cott 1994; Race 1995; Blume and Fitzgerald 1996).
Chemical Name and Commercial Formulations
Mode of Action
Timing of Application
Maximum Water Concentration
Timing and Appearance of Effects
Field Instructions and Guidance on Operational Applications
Zebra Mussel Chemical Control Guide