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Basic information on the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).
Species-specific Sperm Attraction in the Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the Quagga Mussel, Dreissena bugensis.
The occurrence of species-specific agents that attract sperm to spawned oocytes of zebra and quagga mussels might explain both the high fecundity of these species and their apparent inability to hybridize in nature.
Functional Organization of Intrinsic Gill Muscles in Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia), and Response to Transmitters in vitro.
Lamellibranch gills are used for various vital functions ranging from food capture to ion regulation. The foundation for many of these functions is the transport of water through the gill. Few studies have examined the role of intrinsic gill muscles and their ability to control water flow by altering the dimensions of the water passageways of the gill. This report examines the organization of intrinsic gill muscles and associated connective tissue in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha.
This library contains slides of the following exotics: zebra mussel, goby, spiny water flea, sea lamprey, ruffe, and purple loosestrife. These slides may be accessed at this site or a copy may be ordered from Michigan Sea Grant using the order form at the end of the document.
Efficiency of Feeding on Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by Common Bream (Abramis brama), White Bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and Roach (Rutilus rutilus): The Effects of Morphology and Behavior.
Zooplankton Grazing During the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Colonization of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron.
Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site - CONTROL.
Number of articles = 44.
Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site.
Number of articles = 775.
Videoconferencing Project: Zebra Mussels: Lessons Learned in the Great Lakes.
An Overview of Biology, Impacts, Prevention and Control of a Freshwater Invader. Four videotapes available on 1) zebra mussel biology and relationships to the ecosystem (10 min.); 2) spread and impact on inland surface waters (10 min.); 3) prevention and control practices (10 min.); 4) Lessons Learned in the Great Lakes: technical and educational resources available (15 min.).
Four videos available to view using RealPlayer on: Outreach tools, Control, Biology, and Spread and Impact.
National Science Foundation.
This overview of the zebra mussel invasion contains a brief video clip entitled "Zebra Busters" which may be viewed using QuickTime.
This 30 minute TV special takes a look at the threats these aquatic nuisance species pose, and how scientists, the public, and policy makers are working to prevent the spread of these potentially devastating invaders. May be viewed using Windows MediaPlayer.
Zebra mussels in Vermont. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation.
Average Cost to Control Zebra Mussels by Plant Type as of 1995.
Here are some of the many methods that have been investigated to help remove and control zebra mussels. There is no single, ideal solution for all affected facilities.
Drifting Macrophytes as a Mechanism for Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Invasion of Lake-outlet Streams.
In an effort to find out if aquatic plants play a role in the dispersal of this pest, the scientists collected macrophytes in an outflow creek of an invaded lake in Michigan. Their results showed that, on average each day, 2,620 adult mussels left the lake, hitchhiking on drifting aquatic plants.
UnderWater Magazine: ROV Pipeline Inspections. Remotely operated vehicles have long since proven their importance as an integral part of the marine industry.
Last Updated: 16 Nov 1999.
UnderWater Magazine: Zebra Mussels: The New Inland Shell Game.
Last Updated: 16 Nov 1999.
UnderWater Magazine: A Zebra Doesn't Change His Stripes; Mussels Continue to Pose a Problem to Infrastructure. Commercial diving contractors throughout the Midwest and northern states continue to fight Dreissena polymorpha.
Last Updated: 16 Nov 1999.
River Invaders: The Scourge Of Zebra Mussels.
Small, remarkable creatures... far more sophisticated than one can imagine, and perhaps the most threatening of all exotic species that have invaded North American waters. Their numbers are phenomenal... their spread is rapid... and in their wake is a trail of death and destruction.
Ohio University Zebra Mussel Page.
Sea Grant's National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse is home to North America's extensive technical library of publications related to the spread, biology, impacts, and control of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis).
Mussels (and Clams).
Description: Includes the larger pearly naiad mussels, as well as the small fingernail clams, and the European clam (Corbicula). Fingernail clams are small (no more than 1/2 in. in diameter), fragile, and are whitish or grayish in color.
Guide - Program: The Mussel Watch Project.
An element of the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program monitors a suite of contaminants in the tissue of bivalve mollusks (mussels and oysters) and in sediments in coastal and estuarine waters of the United States.
Overview of EMAP Surface Waters Lake Sampling, daily operations, lake verification and index site location, general lake assessment, protocols for temperature, dissolved oxygen, shoreline physical habitat, and more.
Issues - Introduced Species.
Introductions of nonnative species may be intentional or unintentional. In addition to the accidental introduction of nonnative species, introductions may occur from species deliberately brought into the country. History of introduced species in North America.
Great Lakes Atlas - 3rd Edition.
The largest categories of impact are pollution, habitat loss, and exotic species. Phosphorus concentrations in the lakes are similarly below maximum levels in the upper lakes and at or near maximum concentrations in Lakes Ontario and Erie.
A Coupled Benthic-Pelagic Ecosystem Model for Saginaw Bay: Project Period: 9/1/99 to 8/31/00.
Expected outcomes of the work will be (1) a better quantitative understanding of ecosystem stress-response relationships and benthic-pelagic coupling in the Saginaw Bay ecosystem, and (2) forecasts of possible future states of the bay as a result of changes in external stressors such as nutrient loads and zebra mussel densities and size structure.
Trophic Transfer of PCBs: Zebra Mussels and Round Gobies: Project Period: 10/1/98 - 9/30/00.
The project consists of a study of the transfer of PCBs from zebra mussels to higher trophic levels in each of three Great Lakes areas of concern. Trophic status of the round goby and smallmouth bass will be determined by a combination of stomach content and stable isotope analyses.
Slide #32 (zebra mussels) in a slide show. This site discusses threats to the Great Lakes ecosystem that continue to plague us and that will be hard to solve. For example, exotic species have had a huge impact on the Great Lakes ecosystem and remain a serious challenge.
Report on United States Progress - Exotic Species.
Populations of native fish, including lake trout, walleye, yellow perch, and whitefish are threatened by the establishment of these exotic species. Zebra mussels continue to profoundly affect the Great Lakes ecosystem.
Issues Concerning the Great Lakes: Exotic Species.
This site contains photographs of the various exotic species that have invaded the Great Lakes region.
The Zebra Mussel Story.
This site reviews the history and the impacts that the invasion of the zebra mussel has made in North America.
Lake Erie LaMP - A Primer on Phosphorus.
Phosphorus is an important nutrient that controls the amount of algae that will grow suspended in the water. Fewer algae will result in less food being available to other aquatic organisms in the food chain, including perch and walleye.
1998 Great Lakes Guidance Preproposal Selection.
In November 1997, GLNPO solicited preproposals for $4 million in projects to be funded during 1998. The requested funding categories were: habitat protection and restoration; contaminated sediments; pollution prevention; exotic species; and emerging issues.
Great Lakes Project Summaries 1998.
In FY 99 GLNPO looked for projects in the areas of Contaminated Sediments, Pollution Prevention and Reduction (pursuant to the Binational Toxics Strategy), Habitat (Ecological) Protection and Restoration, Exotic Species, and Emerging Issues.
FY 1999 GLNPO Grants Preproposals by Funding Category.
St. Lawrence River Contaminated Sediments GL99021 Biological Monitoring of Sediment Remediation Sites Contaminated Sediments GL99004 Project PAH Contaminated Sediments In-situ Remediation of PCB-contaminated Kalamazoo River Contaminated Sediment.
This report provides detailed technical and background information that provides the basis for the impairment conclusions recorded in the Lake Erie LaMP Status Report. Historical changes in total phytoplankton biomass and more.
Great Lakes Report to Congress: Chapter 5 - Feb 94.
This chapter presents FYs 1989, 1990, and 1991 accomplishments pertaining to the Great Lakes, as reported by five Federal agencies
Sediment Contamination: Summary to Sections 1-1.3.
This investigation has defined the ecological effects and the nature and extent of sediment contamination in the Tannery Bay area of eastern White Lake.
State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference '96: Nearshore Waters Status and Trends.
The nearshore areas of the Great Lakes are diverse physical habitats, exhibiting a range of morphometric features, current velocities, substrates, and aquatic vegetation.
Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study.
Office of Water. Develop New Modules - Upper food web (fish) bioenergetics and population dynamics and coupling to lower food web - benthic production and coupling to pelagic modules.
Earth Vision, Study of Parameter Sensitivity in Yellow Perch, and the Effect of the Zebra Mussel on Contaminant Transfer.
Hydrophobic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorb to particles suspended in the water column (e.g. phytoplankton), which are then filtered from the water column by zebra mussels. The zebra mussel has the potential to impact the cycling of contaminants through the food web.
Researchers at the U.S. EPA, MED-Duluth have developed a comprehensive toxicity/tissue residue database for aquatic organisms exposed to inorganic and organic chemicals. This database is an invaluable resource for use in the systematic investigation of hypotheses related to effect/residue relationships. The database contains more than 3,000 effect and no-effect endpoints for survival, growth, and reproductive parameters for invertebrates, fish, and aquatic life-stage of amphibians. Data were abstracted from approximately 500 literature references on approximately 200 chemicals and
190 freshwater and marine test species.
Mid-Continent Ecology Division has developed several databases and expert systems for use by researchers and risk assessors. These systems are useful in a range of activities including the hazard evaluation of new and existing chemicals and pesticides and the evaluation of impact assessments associated with effluent, leachate, and environmental monitoring data.
R/V Lake Explorer Tours.
As part of MED-Duluth's research equipment, the R/V Lake Explorer is used to monitor the physical, chemical, and biological condition of Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes ecosystems.
The zebra mussel was first found in the Great Lakes in 1988. Since then it has spread to all of the Great Lakes.
1997 MED-Duluth Publications (by Author).
G.T. Ankley (1996). "Evaluation of metal: acid volatile sulfide relationships in the prediction of metal bioaccumulation by benthic macroinvertebrates," G.T. Ankley, D. DiToro, D.J. Hansen, and W.J. Berry 1996. Assessing the ecological risk of metals in sediment...
This page addresses methods and tools to monitor, assess, and report on the health of America's water resources, and software and automated information systems to manage monitoring data.
The Volunteer Monitor, The National Newsletter of Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring.
This project has been partially funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The contents of this document do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of EPA, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation of use.
At least 2.4 million gallons of ballast water arrive in US harbors from foreign ports every hour, according to a recent Sea Grant 1 study. The average ship coming into San Francisco Bay to tank up on oil or load bulk cargo may unload 3 to 13 million gallons of ballast water.
Coastlines January/Febuary 1999 - Connecticut Becomes the 19th State Invaded By Zebra Mussels.
Zebra mussels, thumbnail-sized freshwater mollusks that arrived in the United States through ship ballast water in 1986, have invaded their 19th state with the confirmation of their presence in East Twin Lake in Salisbury, Connecticut, according to an announcement from the Connecticut Sea Grant College Program.
Coastlines October 1999.
Such ominous visions are becoming increasingly common as exotic species continue to be introduced into this nation's waters from ocean-going vessels that sail from ports all over the world.
Coastlines October 1999.
Washington is the fourth state in the nation to adopt a plan to minimize the introduction of nonnative aquatic nuisance species and eradicate alien species already present. These alien species can severely disrupt the habitat of important native species.
Citizen Volunteer Monitoring Programs - PA.
Note: The contact names and information cited here may be revised in coming months as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's national directory of volunteer monitoring programs is updated. Types of monitoring: chemical, biological, physical, site assessment.
Habitat Assessment Management Measure.
Site and design marinas to protect against adverse effects on shellfish resources, wetlands, submerged aquatic vegetation, or other important riparian and aquatic habitat areas as designated by local, state, or federal governments.
Turning to the Sea: America´s Ocean Future.
Nonindigenous Species. Prevent introductions and control existing populations of nonindigenous species in U.S. ocean and coastal waters. One of the primary sources of aquatic nonindigenous species is discharge of ballast water in ships.
Academy 2000 - Invasive Nonnative Species.
It is increasingly important that watershed managers become aware of invasive exotic species in their watersheds, in both the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Several Web sites with exotic species information can be useful.
EPA Region 1 - Press Release.
In recognition of the increasing importance of the Internet as a global communications tool, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's New England office today released the 1997 State of the New England Environment Report.
Activity: Mussel Builders, participants will construct their own zebra mussels out of paper bags.
This activity will increase the understanding of how the zebra mussel is capable of significantly affecting the food chain and the aquatic ecosystem and give the participants a greater appreciation for the natural habitat of Lake Erie and its ecosystem.
Plays self-running slide show on the exotic species that have invaded the Great Lakes region.
Informational film on EPA’s surveillance and monitoring vessel, the Lake Guardian, which is operated by EPA’s Great Lakes National Program office, and is in service as a floating laboratory that gathers data about the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the Great Lakes.
The GBA and GBA Foundation are pleased to present a complete report on "Zebra Mussel Biofouling Control In Cottage and Other Small Volume Water Systems." This comprehensive research report evaluates six products used to control Zebra Mussels in cottage water intakes.
Dreissena polymorpha Puts Foot in Door.
This site contains information dealing largely with the zebra mussel foot. Contains photos.
Basic information on the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).
The main objectives of this Mini-teach are to show the proliferation of zebra mussels and their effects on local bodies of water.
Illinois Natural History Survey Mollusk Collection.
The Illinois Natural History Survey Mollusk Collection contains over 94,800 catalogued specimens, most of which were collected in Illinois and the southeastern United States. The collection is 87% freshwater species (mussels, fingernail clams, and snails) and 13% terrestrial species (snails). Most of the specimens were collected as a result of various faunal surveys conducted by INHS biologists from the late 1800's until the present.
Zebra Mussel Abstract. Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species.
Reviews the nature, transport, control, and regulation of numerous nonindigenous nuisance species, describes their ecology, effects, and environmental impacts in various freshwater habitats, conveys research results and some economic evaluation of methods to control the spread of these nuisance species, especially in cooling and service water systems, and addresses technology transfer, education, and outreach as well as sociological and related issues. Methods, concepts, and background information are also provided to prevent the future introduction of nuisance species into aquatic ecosystems as well as limiting their spread and economic impact.
Marietta College Biology Department. Mussels of the Ohio River.
The Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Office updates and publishes a map of zebra mussel sightings in Michigan waters and a database of lakes monitored each year.
Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca) are found in marine, brackish, and fresh waters. Common methods of introduction include ballast water introductions, aquarium releases, and accidental release from aquaculture facilities. Displacement by competition is the most frequently observed impact on native species. The most notable nonindigenous mussel introduction is the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a native of eastern Europe. Since their initial introduction, they have proven to be a very costly pest to municipal and industrial water users. Additionally, zebra mussels can destroy entire colonies of native mussels by interfering with such basic functions as respiration, reproduction, feeding, growth, and movement.
This page is being developed, with user suggestions and comments as part of the National Zebra Mussel Information Network. Participation is required to further the goal of providing needed information for the management and control of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).
Basic source for zebra mussel information. Dreissena polymorpha, known by its common name as the zebra mussel, originated in the Balkans, Poland, and the former Soviet Union. These mollusks get their name from the striped pattern of their shells, although patterns can vary widely.
International Research Consortium on Molluscan Symbionts
The consortium was formed to perform fundamental research on the biology, ecology, distribution, and systematics of organisms symbiotically associated with molluscs, including commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic species. Emphasis is currently on the endosymbionts of fresh and brackish water bivalves in North America and Europe, particularly Dreissena spp.
Assessment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as a source of contaminant exposure for diving ducks.
Zebra mussels have colonized the nearshore zone in much of the Great Lakes, but the environmental ramifications of logarithmic population growth have not yet been observed everywhere. Zebra mussels voraciously filter plankton and might be expected to change the structure of plankton communities and thus the structure of the aquatic food web. The study offers the opportunity to examine trophic structure and food web linkages within coastal wetlands that span the nutrient enrichment gradient of Green Bay. Likewise, the trophic structure of coastal wetlands can be compared with the off-shore pelagic food web.
Zebra mussels are currently being employed as a method to monitor and indicate levels of toxicants at the sediment water interface in the Netherlands. For example, organotins have a residence time of 10 years in sediments and it is of value for aquatic ecosystem managers to determine concentrations of these compounds. The zebra mussels are suitable as biomonitors because of their ability to accumulate toxicants and their immobile position in the benthic zone.
Zebra Mussel Control Method Publications (No endorsements intended or implied).
Aproximately 40 site links on control of the zebra mussel.
Frequently asked questions about the zebra mussel. The author and his daughter, a student at Berkley High School, Michigan, did this interview together. The author's daughter recently wrote a school report on zebra mussels.
The Ram Lab has been doing research on zebra mussels since 1990. Research has focussed on understanding mechanisms regulating zebra mussel reproduction; however, the effects of toxic chemicals and the nonreproductive roles of neurotransmitters have also been studied.
This slide show works well using Netscape, with Tool bar, Location, and Directory Buttons options turned off in order to see the full images. View with a full screen window (click on the "up" arrow head in the upper right corner of your Netscape window). You can click on any of the mini-images to see the full image and caption for that slide, or you can go to the first slide and follow the links between the full images in sequence by clicking on the "Next slide" button on each full image page.
Previous studies on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) have examined tolerance limits of dissolved oxygen and temperatures that can be used in controlling this exotic pest. The authors wanted to determine if colonization of the zebra mussel in the Atchafalaya Basin would be deterred by the natural seasonal phenomenon of increased temperatures and decreased oxygen saturation.
Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site - INDUSTRY.
Number of articles = 143.
This Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site (SGNIS) is a project of the National Sea Grant College Program, produced by the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network. It is a national information center that contains a comprehensive collection of research publications and education materials produced by Sea Grant programs and other research institutions across the country on zebra mussels and other aquatic nuisance species. All materials available through this home page have either appeared in professional science journals or have been through a rigorous scientific review to ensure the quality of the information provided.
Number articles = 713.
Funded in part by the Illinois Council on Food and Agricultural Research and the National Pork Producers Council.
An exploration of the ability of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to digest and biodeposit livestock waste. The primary objective of this research is to determine the ability of zebra mussels to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), coliform bacteria, solids, phosphorus, and ammonia levels in diluted livestock waste through filtration and biosedimentation. A secondary objective is to establish the basic nutritional values of the mussel as a livestock feed component. The tertiary objective is to establish the basic soil nutrient levels of the feces and pseudofeces.
The University of Illinois Extension. 4-H School Enrichment Programs. The Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.
This program is tuning kids into zebra mussels and other exotic species.
Corp of Engineers: Reports Published by the Zebra Mussel Research Program.
Zebra Mussel Research Program.
The Zebra Mussel Research Program (ZMRP) was authorized by the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, Public Law 101-646, and is the only federally authorized research program for the development of technology to control zebra mussels.